MYCOTOXINS

GRAINS

The World Health Organization defines mycotoxins as toxic compounds that are naturally produced by certain types of molds (fungi). Molds that can produce mycotoxins grow on numerous foodstuffs such as cereals, dried fruits, nuts, and spices.

Our company offers both ELISA testing kits and the Symmetric Technology, designed and manufactured in Europe, where the most stringent limits in the world are set for mycotoxins residues. Symmetric products are extremely accurate and precise producing reliable with exceptional sensitivity and stability.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

AFLATOXIN B1

Aflatoxin B1 is a toxic metabolite of major concern to the food & feed industry, generally produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. It can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. 

Aflatoxin B1 can be present in grains, cereals, nuts, and other commodities associated with human food or animal feed, and it is the most toxic and frequently detected Aflatoxin form. The other Aflatoxin types present a significant danger if the concentration is at a high level. 

Animals are exposed to Aflatoxin B1 by consumption of feeds that are contaminated by aflatoxin producing fungal strains during growth, harvest or storage. Symptoms of toxicity in animals range from death to chronic diseases, reproductive interference, immune suppression, decreased milk, and egg production.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

TOTAL AFLATOXIN

Aflatoxins Total (B1, B2, G1, G2) are the sum of toxic metabolites of major concern to the food & feed industry, generally produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. They can have immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects. 

Aflatoxins can be present in grains, cereals, nuts, and other commodities associated with human food or animal feed, although toxicity and prevalence vary depending on the specific metabolite of the group.

In animals that have been exposed to Aflatoxins by consuming contaminated feeds, symptoms of toxicity ranging from death to chronic diseases, reproductive interference, immune suppression, decreased milk, and egg production, have been observed.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

DEOXYNIVALENOL

Deoxynivalenol (DON), also known as vomitoxin, is a member of the trichothecene mycotoxins produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus (F. graminearum). Grains including barley, wheat, oats, corn and maize are frequently infected by this fungus. 

Deoxynivalenol, along with 3-acetyl- and 15-acetyl-DON, constitutes a highly toxic molecule and it is considered to play a crucial role in immunological and nervous system problems. 

Due to their cytotoxicity, these toxins will always be a risk to human and animal health. Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations regarding the amount of DON allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. Accurate and rapid determination of Deoxynivalenol (DON) presence in commodities is of paramount importance.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

ZEARALENONE

Zearalenone (ZON) is a member of the trichothecene mycotoxins produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus (F. graminearum).

Grains including barley, wheat, oats, corn, rice and maize are frequently infected by this fungus. It is frequently implicated in reproductive disorders of farm animals and occasionally in hyperoestrogenic syndromes in humans.

There is evidence that Zearalenone (ZON) and its metabolites possess oestrogenic activity in pigs, cattle and sheep. Moreover, Zearalenone (ZON) has also been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic and genotoxic.

Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations regarding the amount of Zearalenone (ZON) allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. Accurate and rapid determination of Zearalenone (ZON) presence in commodities is of critical importance.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

OCHRATOXIN

Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins produced by some Aspergillus species (mainly A. ochraceus, but also by 33% of A. niger industrial strains) and some Penicillium species, especially P. verrucosum and P. carbonarius.

Ochratoxin is a potent nephrotoxin and causes both acute and chronic effects in the kidneys of all mammalian species tested. It is also genotoxic (damages DNA) and teratogenic (damages the foetus) and is considered a probable carcinogen, causing renal carcinoma and other cancers in a number of animal species.

Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations regarding the amount of Ochratoxin allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. Accurate and rapid determination of the presence of Ochratoxin in commodities is of major importance.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

FUMONISIN

Fumonisins are a member of the trichothecene mycotoxins poduced by fungi of Fusarium moniliforme (F. verticillioides), F. proliferatum, and several other Fusarium species. 

Grains including corn, wheat and other cereals are frequently infected by these fungi in the field or during storage. More than ten types of fumonisins have been isolated and characterized. Of these, fumonisin B1 (Fumonisin B1), B2 (Fumonisin B2), and B3 (Fumonisin B3) are the major fumonisins produced. Fumonisins are hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in all animal species tested. 

The earliest histological change to appear in either the liver or kidney of fumonisin-treated animals is increased apoptosis followed by regenerative cell proliferation, while the acute toxicity of fumonisin is low, it is the known cause of two diseases which occur in domestic animals with rapid onset: equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema syndrome. Both of these diseases involve disturbed sphingolipid metabolism and cardiovascular dysfunction.

Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations regarding the amount of Fumonisin B1, and Fumonisin B2 allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. Accurate and rapid determination of Fumonisins presence in commodities is of crutial importance.

ELISA | LATERAL FLOW ________

T-2 / HT-2 TOXIN

T-2 and HT-2 toxin belong to the group of trichothecenes. This group of mycotoxins are produced mainly by fungi of the genus Fusarium which is toxic to humans and animals. 

Agricultural commodities are frequently infected by this fungus. It is frequently implicated in cytotoxic and immunosuppressive disorders of farm animals and occasionally in pathogenetic syndromes in humans. Both in man and in animals T-2/HT-2 toxins can cause alimentary toxic aleukia. 

Most controlling government agencies worldwide have regulations or recommendations regarding the amount of T-2/HT-2 allowable in human and animal foodstuffs. Accurate and rapid determination of T-2/HT-2 presence in commodities is of great importance.